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Synthetic Hair Transplant: How It Works & Potential Risks

Katelyn Hagerty

Reviewed by Katelyn Hagerty, FNP

Written by Rachel Sacks

Published 06/11/2023

What comes to mind when you picture hair transplants? Hair that looks completely unnatural? Bad toupees that look more like a rug on top of your head than actual hair? Or, maybe, the dreaded “raccoon skin cap” routine? *shudder* 

Fortunately, the days of fake-looking hair transplants are behind us, with more natural hair transplants becoming available. And whether you’re dealing with thinning hair or more advanced hair loss, transplants are one of many options to regain healthy-looking hair and confidence.

While natural hair transplants that use hair from your scalp are  a more common type of transplant, a synthetic hair transplant is also an option — though primarily outside of the US.

But how does a synthetic hair transplant work? Are there risks? What does a synthetic hair transplant before and after look like?

We’ll answer these questions and more, and shed some light on what you need to know about this type of hair implantation.

Before we dive into everything you need to know about a synthetic hair transplant, we’ll cover some basic information about hair transplantation.

Hair transplants are a way to restore full hair for those who deal with hair loss — most often androgenetic alopecia, a type of hair loss also called androgenic alopecia but more commonly known as male or female pattern baldness.

In a natural hair transplant, individual follicles of hair from a part of your scalp that isn’t affected by male pattern baldness (called the "donor site") are harvested and transplanted onto the part that is affected.

Hair transplants originally involved removing and transplanting “hair plugs," which were groups of several hair follicles in clusters. However, the hair grafts (the groups of follicles) would look unnatural due to a sometimes noticeable gap in between the hair plugs.

Our guide on hair transplants goes into more detail about the different types of transplants that use natural hair growth. But we’ll continue to focus on another type: synthetic hair transplants.

Natural hair wasn’t the only method for hair transplants. There have been attempts to use artificial hair — also referred to as artificial hair fibers or synthetic hair fibers — to treat baldness for decades. 

However, the use of these artificial hair fibers was banned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1980s due to unsafe application and subpar results that often led to severe infection, injury and more.

In the 1990s, the European Union allowed synthetic hair transplants as a legitimate treatment under ethical medical protocols to ensure safety along with the use of biocompatible fibers, or “bio fibers.”

This biocompatible artificial hair was made with a polyamide fiber that resulted in human hair-like fibers and produced fewer reactions due to advances in biomedical technology. One of the latest advancements in synthetic hair fibers is Automatic Biofibre® from Italy.

Synthetic hair implants — also referred to as bio fiber hair transplants — work differently than natural hair transplants. 

To be a candidate for a natural hair transplant, you need enough healthy hair on your scalp that can be transplanted to the area that needs hair, as well as the ability to grow hair on the thinning area of your scalp.

A bio fiber hair transplant could be good for those who don’t qualify for a natural hair transplant due to either an insufficient amount of hair or the inability to grow hair on the thinning section of scalp. And synthetic fibers are available in a range of colors, lengths, shapes and hair densities.

Surgeons perform what’s called a “tolerance test” using an automatic hair implant device designed with a special hooked needle to place the synthetic hair fibers deep enough under the skin and tie a unique reversible knot to keep the fiber in place.

If you’re undergoing a synthetic hair transplant, the process involves local anesthesia on the scalp before the actual procedure. From there, the process can place 600 artificial hair fibers per hour on an anesthetized scalp, with the average procedure setting around 1,000 fibers.

The test patch is observed weekly for four weeks to check for any reactions on the scalp and to make sure the synthetic fibers don’t fall out. 

Post-procedure care includes a special shampoo for three days and antibiotics for one week after the transplant, and activities that increase sweating should be avoided for the first three weeks. A healthcare provider may provide more details on how to care for the surgical site at home.

Studies on the safety of this procedure have been conducted and presented to the scientific community since the 2000s.

One 2018 study looked at 194 patients with androgenetic alopecia who underwent synthetic hair transplants to test the safety and effectiveness of Automatic Biofibre® implants. After two years, almost 98 percent of the patients were happy with the results and side effects were reported in less than 10 percent of patients.

An earlier study from 2015 — which looked at 133 patients who had synthetic hair implants — also reported very satisfactory results, with 90 percent having no difficulties after the surgery.

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When synthetic hair transplants first became popular back in the 1980s, there were many risks and adverse effects that led to the FDA banning the use of synthetic fibers. Some of these risks included:

  • Infections

  • Cysts

  • Allergic reactions

  • Possible carcinogenicity

  • Scarring alopecia (cicatricial alopecia)

  • Frequent replacement of fibers

Many of these risks were due to the nonmedical performance of the implants and the use of fibers that weren’t compatible with the scalp. Currently, the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery (ISHRS) agrees with the FDA’s ban on the use of synthetic hairs.

Although the studies mentioned above had few reported side effects, it’s worth noting that the sample size of each was relatively small. Ultimately, more studies and research need to be conducted to thoroughly evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this type of transplant.

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While a synthetic hair transplant is one option to treat hair loss, there are less invasive methods you may be able to use that have proven successful.

Two medications approved by the FDA to treat hair loss in men that are also effective are minoxidil and finasteride. These hair loss treatments can slow hair loss and increase hair density, according to the Journal of Aesthetic & Reconstructive Surgery.

Minoxidil is usually applied topically (but can be taken orally). In contrast, finasteride can either be taken orally or as a topical treatment if you don’t want to take a pill every day.

Hair loss treatments, delivered

Dealing with hair loss can be frustrating and may have you dreaming of your own synthetic hair transplant before and after. But there are things to consider with this type of hair transplant:

  • Synthetic hair fibers have been banned by the FDA since the 1980s. However, artificial hair implantation is allowed in Europe, mainly using artificial hair produced by an Italian company.

  • Not many side effects or risks are known about this process due to a lack of research conducted.

  • Some smaller studies have reported that synthetic hair transplants have been successful, with patients being satisfied with their results.

Artificial hair implants such as Biofibre® can potentially improve the aesthetic effects of male pattern baldness. Getting a hair transplant — whether synthetic or natural — is a big decision. It’s important to understand the effects, costs and limitations of any medical procedure before you go ahead. 

You can read if hair implants are a viable solution in our guide. You can also consult with a healthcare professional about your hair loss treatment options, including medications like finasteride or minoxidil.

11 Sources

Hims & Hers has strict sourcing guidelines to ensure our content is accurate and current. We rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We strive to use primary sources and refrain from using tertiary references.

  1. HARVESTING OF DONOR HAIR FOR HAIR TRANSPLANTS. (2003, October 1). ISHRS. Retrieved from https://ishrs.org/2003/10/01/harvesting-of-donor-hair-for-hair-transplants/.
  2. Zito, P. M., & Raggio, B. S. (2022, August 25). Hair Transplantation - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf. NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547740/.
  3. Rose, P. T. (2014). Hair restoration surgery: Challenges and solutions. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, 8, 361-370. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4507484/.
  4. Roccia, M., França, K., Castillo, D., Tchernev, G., Wollina, U., Tirant, M., Valle, Y., Guarneri, C., Fioranelli, M., & Lotti, T. (2018). Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(1), 156-162. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816292/.
  5. Medical Device Bans. (2020, April 6). FDA. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/medical-device-safety/medical-device-bans.
  6. Abdel - Hakim Rateb Said, A., Albzour, B. M., Santiago, M., Agrawal, M., Rovesti, M., Satolli, F., Wollina, U., Tchernev, G., Lotti, J., & Lotti, T. (2018). Automatic Artificial Hair Implant: Safety and Efficacy in Androgenetic Alopecia. A Prospective Study with a Highly Biocompatible Fiber. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(1), 38-42. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816310/.
  7. A hair transplant can give you permanent, natural-looking results. (n.d.). American Academy of Dermatology. Retrieved from https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/hair-loss/treatment/transplant.
  8. Mysore, V. (2010). Controversy: Synthetic Hairs and their Role in Hair Restoration? International Journal of Trichology, 2(1), 42-44. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002411/.
  9. ISHRS Position Statement on Prosthetic Hair Fibers. (n.d.). ISHRS. Retrieved from https://ishrs.org/prosthetic-hair-fibers/.
  10. Ducic, Y. (2015, December 31). An Update on Hair Restoration. Journal of Aesthetic & Reconstructive Surgery. Retrieved from https://aesthetic-reconstructive-surgery.imedpub.com/an-update-on-hair-restoration.pdf.
  11. Serdev, N., D’erme, A.M., Hercogova, J., Zarrab, Z., Chokoeva, A.A., Tchernev, G., U. Wollina, U and Lotti, T.POLYAMIDE HAIR IMPLANT (BIOFIBRE®): EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY IN A GROUP OF 133 PATIENTS. (2015, 03 01). Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, 29, 103-109. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Uwe-Wollina/publication/277331484_Polyamide_hair_implant_biofibreR_evaluation_of_efficacy_and_safety_in_a_group_of_133_patients/links/567c0c8708ae1e63f1e2ccbb/Polyamide-hair-implant-biofibreR-evaluation-of-efficacy-and-safety-in-a-group-of-133-patients.pdf.
Editorial Standards

Hims & Hers has strict sourcing guidelines to ensure our content is accurate and current. We rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We strive to use primary sources and refrain from using tertiary references. See a mistake? Let us know at [email protected]!

This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. The information contained herein is not a substitute for and should never be relied upon for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment. Learn more about our editorial standards here.